Napoléon Bonaparte born Napoleone di Buonaparte; (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815.
Napoleon dominated European affairs for almost two decades while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won the large majority of his battles and seized control of most of continental Europe before his ultimate defeat in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, his campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide and he remains simultaneously one of the most celebrated and controversial political figures in European history
Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed and considered Mason as well as have been his father, brothers, and even the military lieutenants who were under his command. Several documents also prove
In the file of the Grand Orient of France are these documents. Written by Grandmaster Constant Chevellion on November 10, 1934 replying to a request for information from the Grand Lodge of the United States, Napoleon Bonaparte letter explains that effectively he was Initiated in Cairo, Egypt, in a Lodge named Isis, chaired by Grandmaster Kleber.That same lodge was responsible for formally constitute the Rite of Memphis in Montauban in 1815, so in addition Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the first under that Rite Masons.
When Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, it approved and signed a document on June 22, 1799 ordering the union of the Grand Lodge of France and the Grand Orient of France (GOF). Although some lodges of “Scottish” rite reject this approach, in any case, this stage will be marked by an intolerable government intrusion into development and autonomy of the Lodges.
Joaquin Murat, Etienne François Christophe Kellermann were members of the lodge “Napoleon” in Paris. Charles Augereau of “Sincerity” in Paris. Dominique de Pérignon and Jean-Mathieu Serrurier Philibert were affiliated with the Parisian lodges “St. Alexander of Scotland”. Also Antoine-César de Choiseul-Praslin (“Sincerity, Paris), François-Arnail, Louis-Joseph-Charles-Amable d’Albert de Luynes and Dominique Clément de Ris, Lucas Duranteau of Bauné. Senators Also were affiliated with Freemasonry Bernard Germain Etienne de Lacepede (member of the lodge “Nine Sisters” in Paris) which was Venerable the astronomer Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande. ie most of the aristocracy belonged or had a relationship with the Order.
Also Macdonald and General Horace Sebastiani, Rear Admiral Carlos René Magón Medina, Ambassador Pierre Riel Beournonville, Interior Minister, Jean-Baptiste Champagny Nompère, Police Chief Joseph Fouché (started in the lodge “Madeleine Sophie, queen of Sweden “in Arras) and the first president of the Court of Cassation, Muraire Honoré. Brother of Jean-Antoine Chaptal (member of “The Perfect Union”, Montpellier) who was responsible for French agriculture.
Under the Empire’s military lodges were developed since Napoleon saw in Freemasonry an element of cohesion of the army for the feelings of brotherhood inspired. However, Napoleon did not trust Masonry, because this though was controlled by Joseph Fouché, within the Order, the activities of the Royalists were also hiding.
Napoleon Bonaparte while earning his brilliant victories, he was received with honors and banquets for various lodges belonging to the Grand Orient of France. The splendor of imperial France Napoleon Bonaparte was built from 1804 to 1815, also was felt in Freemasonry.
On 22 September 1804, Count de Grasse-Tillytras returned to France and founded the Supreme Council, 33 Gathered convention on October 22 in the Grand Lodge of France, In 1805, before the disputes between the Big East and the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree, Napoleon, to ensure control of the Supreme Council, made appoint Jean-Jacques Regis de Cambaceres as Sovereign Grand Commander instead of Grasse-Tilly, along with various dignitaries of the Grand Orient (Dominique Clément de Ris, Pierre Riel Beurnonville, Dominique de Pérignon, Muraire, D’Aigrefeuille, etc.). Jean-Jacques Regis de Cambaceres, was Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of France from 1806-1821.
Joachim Murat became King of Naples on August 1, 1808. There was then a flourishing of the Franco-Italian military lodges under the Rite of Mizraim (The Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Mizraim is a Masonic rite formed by the union of two ancient Rosicrucian-inspired Masonic rites: the Rite of Memphis and the Rite of Mizraim. The promoter of the merger of the two rites was the famous Giuseppe Garibaldi, who in 1881 became the first Grand Master of the Rite), which will last until the end of the Empire.
The Battle of Waterloo will see the end of the First Empire and military lodges hitherto controlled by Marshal Michel Ney (started in 1801 in the Lodge “St. John of Jerusalem” and Pierre Cambronne Emmanuel de Grouchy (of the lodge “heroism” Beauvais and “Sincerity” in Strasbourg). While most of the marshals of the Empire were Freemasons, many of his opponents were so alike, as the Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson (of the Lodge “Union” No. 331), Sir John Moore, Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov Illarionovich (of the lodge “the Three Keys” Regensburg). Arthur Wellesley (Logia “Wellesley Family” No. 494), Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (Logia “Archimedes” in Altenburg).
The fall of Napoleon leads largely to a restoration of Freemasonry of government dependency. Thus, it was not until the Third Republic, when Freemasonry met in France a ‘golden age’.
This article was written by Psalm Triginta